Martin Cohen

Author Archives: Martin Cohen

Martin Cohen is a science and piano teacher. He is also a jazz musician and composer.

2

## Minor scales – Natural vs harmonic vs melodic

There exists only 1 type of major scale, but there are 3 types of minor scales: natural minor, harmonic minor and melodic minor.

Why do we have 3 different minor scales?

How are the 3 types of minor scales formed?

What is the difference between harmonic and melodic minor?

How to use the different minor scales?

You will discover all of this here in this tutorial.

## Natural minor – The C natural minor scale

I will here only briefly describe the natural minor scale, since you can have all the details of this scale in the lesson “How to form a natural minor scale“.

First of all: why is the natural minor scale named as such? This is because the natural minor scale is based on the major scale. For example:  the notes of the A natural minor scale are exactly the same as the notes of the C major scale, the A natural minor scale only starts on the A instead of on the C.

You can say that A minor is the relative minor of C major. Or, you can also say: C major is the relative major of A minor. So both scales share exactly the same notes, they only start on a different note.

Notice that A is the 6th note in the scale of C major.

In general, you can say: a natural minor scale can be found by playing the notes of a major scale starting on the 6th note of that major scale.

Or, in other words: you can find a relative minor of a major scale by going up a major 6th interval (or going down a minor 3rd  interval, the result is the same, you will arrive at the same note).

For example, to find the C natural minor scale, go a minor 3rd up from C to find its relative major scale, which is Eb major. C natural minor and Eb major have the same notes in their scales. So the C natural minor scale is:

C   D   Eb   F   G   Ab   Bb   C

(if you don’t know how to form a major scale, see my lesson “How to form a major scale“)

Below, a sound sample of the C natural minor scale:

## Why do we need more minor scales?

Now, why only just the natural minor scale is not enough? Why do we need more than one simple minor scale?

To understand this, you have to look at the leading tone (also called leading note). A leading tone is a note that resolves to another note a semitone up (or down). In our case, the leading tone resolves to the root of the scale we’re in.

Let me illustrate this with the C major scale. Play the C major scale starting on C and go up till you reach the 7th note, the B. When you end your line on the B, it sounds as if something is missing, as if it’s not finished. You can solve this ‘problem’ by playing the next note a semitone higher than the B, which is the C (the root of our C major scale). What you did is resolving the B by playing the next note a semitone higher, the C.

The B is called a leading tone; it’s a semitone away from our resolution, the C, the root of our scale.

In all major scales, the 7th note is a semitone away from the root. So in a major scale, the 7th note is a leading tone. You can see that in the next figure where I show this with the C major scale. The ‘major scale formula’ (WWHWWWH) is the same for all major scales.

Now, the natural minor scale doesn’t have a leading tone since the 7th note of a natural minor scale is a whole tone away from the root; see for example the C natural minor scale (next figure): the 7th note is a Bb, a whole tone away from the root C. The ‘natural minor scale formula’ is WHWWHWW

Since the natural minor scale has no leading tone, the harmonic minor scale was introduced.

(the next video explains more in detail what a leading tone is and how the resolution from a leading tone to the root sounds)

## Harmonic minor – The C harmonic minor scale

The harmonic minor scale is almost equal to the natural minor scale. The only difference is the 7th note which is raised by a half tone. In that way, the ‘leading tone-problem’ is solved.

Let me illustrate this again with the C minor scale.

As we saw, C natural minor is:

C   D   Eb   F   G   Ab   Bb   C

Now, just raise the 7th note (the Bb) by a semitone to obtain C harmonic minor:

C   D   Eb   F   G   Ab   B   C

It’s as easy as that! When you want to know a harmonic minor scale: take the natural minor scale and raise the 7th note by a half tone and you’re done!

Notice the special interval between the 6th and 7th note of the harmonic minor scale: 3 semitones, which you probably recognized as a minor 3rd interval. This is quite special because till now we’ve seen only half tone and whole tone intervals between two consecutive notes of a scale.

This interval of 3 semitones gives the harmonic minor scale a very nice sounding effect. I would even say: an exotic effect.

Listen to the next sound sample of the C harmonic minor scale to hear this effect:

By the way: the 3 semitone-interval is in this case technically spoken NOT a minor 3rd interval, but an augmented 2nd interval, since we’re going from Ab to B (in C harmonic minor) and not from G# to B.

Look at the next figure to have an overview of the intervals between the notes of a harmonic minor scale and with the ‘harmonic minor scale formula’. You can clearly see the semitone -or half tone- interval (H) between the leading tone (the 7th note of the interval) and the root. The augmented 2nd interval is displayed as 1½ whole tones (=3 semitones).

The exotic sounding augmented 2nd interval in the harmonic minor scale is however not always the wanted effect. And this is where the melodic minor scale comes into play.

## Melodic minor – The C melodic minor scale

In order to have a minor scale with a leading tone but without an augmented 2nd interval between two consecutive scale notes, just take the harmonic minor scale and raise the 6th note of the harmonic minor scale by a semitone. The scale obtained in this way is called a melodic minor scale.

Let me illustrate this again with C minor. Take the C harmonic minor scale:

C   D   Eb   F   G   Ab   B   C

Now raise the 6th note (the Ab) by a half tone to obtain the C melodic minor scale:

C   D   Eb   F   G   A   B   C

In the next figure with the ‘melodic minor scale formula’, you can see that the melodic minor scale

• doesn’t have an augmented 2nd interval between two consecutive notes of the scale.

To find a melodic minor scale, you have 3 options:

• Take the harmonic minor scale and raise the 6th note by a half step
• Take the natural minor scale and raise the 6th and the 7th note both by a half step
• Take the major scale and replace the major 3rd by a minor 3rd

Note that in classical theory the descending melodic scale is not the same as the ascending melodic scale: the ascending scale is the one you just saw here above, the descending scale is simply the natural minor scale.

In modern music (jazz), the ascending and descending melodic minor scale are the same.

To have an idea of how the melodic minor scale sounds, listen to the next sound sample:

## The major and all the minor scales compared

In the next infographic, you can see an overview of the differences and similarities between the major scale and the natural, harmonic and melodic minor scale. At a glance, you can see the intervals between the notes of the scale (1, 2 or 3 semitones).

The examples are based on the scales with C as a root note, but this infographic applies of course to major and minor scales in all roots.

## When are the harmonic and melodic minor scales used?

Let me first show you how the harmonic minor scale could be used in a melody or in a solo.

Imagine playing a piece in the key of C minor. You would then normally (but not exclusively) play a melody or a solo with the notes of the C natural minor scale.

Now, let’s assume that the piece contains a G7 chord. The G7 chord consists of the notes G, B, D and F.

When you would continue to play in C natural minor over the G7 chord, the Bb in C natural minor could conflict with the B in the G7. So that’s where you could play C harmonic minor instead of C natural minor.

There are plenty of similar cases of when to use the harmonic minor scale; this is just one example.

So, what about the melodic minor scale?

The melodic minor scale forms the basis of melodic minor harmony on which are based a lot of scales often used in jazz (altered scale, half diminished scale …). So when a jazz musician improvises over a scale derived from melodic minor harmony, he will play notes from the melodic minor scale.

## How to choose the best piano keyboard 2017 – Top 9 digital pianos

So, you’re looking for a new piano. Perhaps you’re just starting to play the piano and are looking for your first keyboard. Or you are already playing for a while and you want to upgrade your piano. Whether you are a beginner, an intermediate player or even an advanced or professional player, it’s not always easy to decide which piano or keyboard to acquire. This article will help to find the best piano or keyboard for you.

## Acoustic piano or electronic keyboard?

The first question is: do you need an acoustic piano or an electronic keyboard?

To be able to answer this question, you should take in consideration the advantages and disadvantages of both options. But a short answer could be: go for an acoustic piano if:

1. you have the money to buy an acoustic piano
2. you have enough place (especially for a grand piano)
3. it doesn’t disturb neighbors or others in your house.
4. you don’t need any other sounds than only one piano sound
5. you don’t need it for gigs

Why an acoustic piano? That’s because the feeling of the keys and the sound are that of a real piano.

But there are many reasons why you would prefer an electronic keyboard:

1. you need a stage piano for gigs
2. other sounds are needed than only the piano sound
3. you want to play with headphones (or to be able to play at low and high volumes)
4. you are a beginning piano player
5. you want to connect the piano to the computer (for example for composing songs on digital audio workstation (DAW) software)
6. there is not enough place for an acoustic piano
7. it’s a hassle (and it’s expensive) of having to tune the piano twice a year
8. a digital piano is less expensive

Nowadays, good digital pianos have piano sounds and a feeling that come very close to that of a real piano, which means that the choice for a digital piano instead of an acoustic piano is a legitimate one.

If the money is the only issue, you could consider to buy a second hand piano. But keep in mind that an acoustic piano has to be tuned once or twice a year, which can be quite expensive too.

If you want to buy a new acoustic piano, go to your local piano or music store, the people there will be glad to advice you in your choice.

If you are more interested in an electronic keyboard, you will find all the necessary information in this article that will help you to decide which model to choose.

The following table will also help you to make a decision whether to buy an acoustic piano or an electronic keyboard:

 Advantages Disadvantages Acoustic piano –          It has the only real piano sound –          It has the only real piano feeling –          Expensive –          Big and heavy –          Not possible to play quietly (no headphones possible) –          Has to be tuned 1-2 times per year Electronic keyboard –          Less expensive –          Easy to transport –          Lots of sounds (not only piano sounds) –          Doesn’t have to be tuned –          You can play at every desired volume –          Possible to play with headphones –          You can connect it to a computer –          Not exactly the real sound of an acoustic piano –          Not exactly the same feeling as an acoustic piano

## How do electronic keyboards imitate a real piano feeling?

In an acoustic piano, a hammer strikes one, two or three strings. The hammer is connected by a lever system to the key. This causes a resistance when playing the key and this is the typical ‘piano feeling’.

Cheap keyboards and most synthesizers don’t imitate the real piano feeling: when playing the keys on such a keyboard, you don’t feel any resistance like you would feel when you play on an acoustic piano.

Better keyboards have weighted keys to simulate this ‘piano feeling’. There are several types of weighted keyboards:

• Semi-weighted keyboards (this is simplest and cheapest solution)

Here, a spring is attached to the key to give it some resistance when playing.

• Hammer action keys

Here, the resistance comes from a small hammer connected to the key by a lever system, replicating the mechanism found in acoustic pianos.

• Graded hammer action keys (this is the best, but most expensive solution)

The same system as in ‘hammer action keys’ is used, but now more resistance is encountered when playing lower keys and less when playing higher keys, like in acoustic pianos.

For a (beginning) piano player, it is important to have at least a keyboard with piano feeling. So a semi-weighted keyboard is the absolute minimum. Better is, of course a keyboard with hammer action.

Other functionalities in electronic keyboards that imitate acoustic pianos are velocity sensitivityA keyboard with velocity sensitive keys responds to the speed of the key-press. A higher speed results in a louder note. This imitates the acoustic piano where the speed of the key-press determines how fast the hammer hits the strings which changes the volume of the sound. Apart from very cheap toy pianos, practically all the modern electronic keyboards are velocity sensitive. and aftertouchMost electronic keyboards respond to the pressure applied after hitting the key. This is called aftertouch. Aftertouch is often used to control vibrato, volume or other parameters..

## The number of keys on a keyboard

An acoustic piano has 88 keys. Digital pianos try to copy their acoustic equivalents and have therefore also mostly 88 keys, but other types of electronic keyboards don’t necessarily always have 88 keys. There exist keyboards with 49 keys, 61 keys, 73 keys, 76 keys and of course 88 keys. As a piano player, I would recommend an absolute minimum of 73 keys, but personally I would go for an 88-key keyboard, unless you have to transport it often (for example for gigs). When you perform often on stage, the weight of an 88-key piano might be an obstacle, so in this case you could opt for 76 or 73 keys.

## What types of electronic keyboards exist?

We can distinguish 4 main categories of keyboard-types:

• Digital pianos
• Synthesizers
• Workstations/arrangers
• MIDI keyboards

For piano players, the first category (digital pianos) is the one that really interests us, so the types of keyboards that I will review below will all be in that category. I will however also explain the other keyboard-types so that you will have a good understanding of all the available electronic keyboards on the market.

### Digital pianos

For a piano player, this is without doubt the most obvious choice.

Digital pianos offer a variety of piano sounds and also other sounds like organs, harpsichords, strings and (vintage) electric pianos (like the Fender Rhodes, for example). Compared to other keyboard-types, the number of different sounds is perhaps limited (synthesizers have many more sounds than the above-mentioned sounds found in digital pianos), but the sounds on a digital piano are usually of better quality in order to mimic a real piano. Also, the feeling of the keys (weighted keys) is more that of a real piano (synthesizers very often don’t have weighted keys).

We distinguish two different types of digital pianos:

• Console pianos
• Stage pianos

A digital console piano is an upright or vertical piano that is built on a wooden frame so that it looks like a real upright piano. It usually also has pedals integrated.

The sound comes out of built-in speakers. It is also possible to connect head-phones so that you can play without disturbing your neighborhood. Often, a direct output is provided to connect the piano to an external amplifier when playing on stage.

For home use, a console piano is an ideal choice.

A stage piano generally offers the same sounds as a console piano. A stage piano, as its name suggests, is for use on stage. This means that portability is of great importance and that is exactly what makes the difference with console pianos: stage pianos don’t have a wooden frame. A stage piano therefore has to be placed on a keyboard stand (or eventually on a table).

Pedals are not integrated, but it is possible to connect pedals to the stage piano. Often (but not always), a sustain pedal is included with a stage piano.

Stage pianos can have built-in speakers, but especially the more high-end stage pianos don’t have built-in speakers and need to be connected to an amplifier with speakers, or simply to head-phones.

Below, you will find the top-9 digital piano reviews. The 9 pianos are divided in 3 price ranges:

1. Up to or around 600 \$
2. From 600 \$ up to or around 1700 \$
3. From 1700 \$ or more

When you are a beginning piano player, you would typically go for the first price range. Advanced and professional players are better of in the last price range. When you already play for a while, but you’re still playing on a beginners keyboard and you’re looking for an upgrade, the middle price range is perhaps where you would search for a new piano.

Since some digital pianos (especially those in the higher price range) don’t have built-in speakers, I will also make some recommendations for powered speakers (studio monitors) that you can use with your digital piano.

#### Top 9 digital pianos 2017

1st price range: up to or around 600 \$

The Yamaha P45

The Yamaha P45 is a very good keyboard for beginning piano players. The piano has 10 preset sounds: 2 grand pianos, 2 electronic pianos, 2 organs, strings, 2 harpsichords and a vibraphone. The MIDIMIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) is a protocol for the communication of sound information between a sending device (for example a MIDI keyboard) and a device that receives the information and produces sound (for example a sound module). The information doesn’t contain the actual sound, but information of which note is played, how long it is played, which instrument is played, and so on. functionality of the P45 is available through a USB connection, which allows you to connect the P45 to a computer.

The polyphony of the P45 is 64 voices.

The P45 has 88 weighted keys with graded hammer action that has a heavier touch in the low keys and a lighter touch in the high keys which mimics the feel of a real piano.

The dual mode function lets you combine two sounds together; it’s for example possible to combine a piano with strings.

The duo mode function splits the keyboard in two parts which allows two people to play at the same time. This is very useful for piano lessons with a teacher.

The P45 comes with 2 integrated 6W speakers and has a weight of 11.5 kg (25 lbs).

Check the price of the Yamaha P45 on amazon.com via the button below:

The Yamaha P115

The Yamaha P115 is Yamaha’s best digital piano in this price range. And it’s for that reason that the P115 is one of the most popular digital pianos on the market.

It’s a bit more expensive than the P45, but the extra cost is worth it every cent. The P115 has 14 preset sounds (4 more than the P45): 3 grand pianos, 3 electric pianos, 3 organs, vibraphone, strings, harpsichord and 2 bass sounds.

The MIDI functionality of the P45 is, like that of the P45, available through a USB connection.

The P115 has the same 88 weighted keys with graded hammer action as the P45. The polyphony is better than that of the P45: 192 voices instead of only 64 in the P45 (which is 3 times as many!).

As the P45, it has the dual mode and duo mode functions (see the Yamaha P45 for explanation).

The P115 has the possibility to connect external (powered) speakers to its AUX outputs.

An extra feature, not available in the P45, is the ‘sound boost’-feature. When playing together with other instruments, you can give the piano an extra ‘boost’ so that it is better audible and the piano doesn’t get lost in the overall band sound, which is a great option for live performances.

Another option that is not available on the P45 is the ability of the P115 to record what you’re playing. This is especially useful when learning to play the piano.

The P115 has 4 integrated 7W speakers and it has a weight of 11.8 kg (26 lbs.).

Check the price of the Yamaha P115 on amazon.com via the button below:

The Casio PX160

Another great digital piano for beginning piano players is the Casio PX160.

The PX160 has 18 preset sounds: 5 grand pianos, 4 electronic pianos, harpsichord, vibraphone, 2 strings, 4 organs and a bass. A simple effect section with reverb (4 types), chorus (4 types) and brilliance (-3 ~ 0 ~ 3) is also included.

It has 88 weighted keys with scaled hammer action and a polyphony of 128 notes.

The duet mode allows for 2 players to play at the same time (like the duo mode in Yamaha digital pianos), so this is very useful for piano lessons with a teacher.

It’s also possible to layer two voices (like piano and strings) together, just as the dual mode in Yamaha digital pianos.

A two track recorder can record and playback your practice and performances.

A USB MIDI connection is available for connecting the piano to a computer so that you can for example work with Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) software.

The PX160 has 2 integrated speakers, but also comes with line outputs to connect the piano to external (powered) speakers.

The weight is 11.1kg (24.6 lb.).

Check the price of the Casio PX160 on amazon.com via the button below:

The Yamaha P45, Yamaha P115 and Casio PX160 compared:

 Yamaha P45 Yamaha P115 Casio PX160 Height 15.4 cm/6.0 inches 16.3 cm/6.4 inches 14.1 cm/5.6 inches Width 132.6 cm/52.2 inches 132.6 cm/52.2 inches 132.2 cm/52 inches Depth 29.5 cm/11.6 inches 29.5 cm/11.6 inches 29.3 cm/11.5 inches Weight 11.5 kg/25.3 lbs 11.8 kg/26 lbs 11.1 kg/24.4 lbs Equalizer No Yes No USB port(s) Yes Yes Yes Headphone jack Yes Yes Yes Number of keys 88 88 88 Integrated speaker(s) Yes Yes Yes Metronome Yes Yes Yes Recording feature No Yes Yes Number of sounds 10 14 18 Velocity sensitivity Yes Yes Yes Polyphony 64 voices 192 voices 128 voices Weighted keys Yes Yes Yes Number of headphone jacks 1 2 2

2nd price range: from 600 \$ up to or around 1700 \$

The Casio PX860

The digital pianos in this price range definitively sound much better than those in the previous price range. This becomes clear when comparing the Casio PX860 piano sound to the PX160 piano sound. The PX860 sounds so much more like a real piano than the PX160 does; the sound has more depth and in the same time also more clarity. The PX860 also has a much bigger dynamic range (= the difference between playing loud and playing softly).

For a beginning piano player, this piano might perhaps go over budget, but an intermediate to advanced player will for sure appreciate its sounds and features.

The PX860 has 18 preset sounds: 5 grand pianos, 4 electronic pianos, harpsichord, vibraphone, 2 strings, 4 organs and a bass.

A hall simulation feature simulates the sound as if you were playing in a big concert hall.

The piano has 88 weighted keys and a polyphony of 256 voices!

The built-in recorder lets you record and playback your performances. With the USB connector, you can connect the PX860 to a computer.

Like the PX160, it offers the duet mode which enables you to play with another person (teacher).

The PX860 has 4 built-in powerful speakers that allow you to play at a high volume without affecting the sound quality. It is also possible to connect external (powered) speakers to the line output.

Check the price of the Casio PX860 on amazon.com via the button below:

The Korg SV1

The Korg SV1 is an absolute fantastic piano when it comes to sound quality, design, and number of preset sounds. The futuristic, cool look of this piano makes that it has a unique design. The SV1 has 36 preset sounds (which is a lot more than its competitors in this price range), distributed over 6 different sound banks with each 6 sounds.

The 6 sound banks are:

• Electric piano 1
• Electric piano 2
• Clav
• Piano
• Organ
• Other (3 strings, choir, 2 brass sounds)

Connections with the computer can be made with either a USB connection or with the MIDI IN/OUT connectors.

The 88 weighted keys together with the very good sound quality make the SV1 feel like a real piano. Note that there exists also a 73-key version, which might be an option for those who take the piano often to gigs.

With the Korg SV1, you can fine tune each sound with the built-in equalizer and by selecting the various effects and amp models.

The SV1 doesn’t have built-in speakers, so you will need external (powered) speakers, or use headphones. Since this piano is really a high quality piano, it comes not only with the standard jack outputs, but also with balanced XLR outputs for much better signal transmission.

The weight of the Korg SV1 is 45.3 pounds for the 88-key version and 38.5 pounds for the 73-key version.

Via the buttons below, you can check the prices on amazon.com:

88-key version:

73-key version:

The Yamaha YDP143

The last digital piano in this price range is the Yamaha YDP143 which has 10 preset sounds to offer: 3 grand pianos, 2 electronic pianos, harpsichord, vibraphone, 2 organs and strings.

The YDP143 has 88 weighted keys; its polyphony is 192 voices. The effect section includes reverb, chorus, delay and an equalizer.

It has a built-in recorder to record and playback and a USB connection so you can connect it to a computer with Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) software.

Like a real piano, the Yamaha YDP143 has a heavier touch in the lower region and a lighter touch in the higher region.

The duo mode function splits the keyboard into two equal parts so that two people can play at the same time (very good for playing together with a teacher). The dual mode lets you layer 2 voices together (like piano and strings, for example).

The YDP143 has 2 speakers. Its weight is 83 pounds.

Check the price of the Yamaha YDP143 on amazon.com via the button below:

The Casio PX860, Korg SV1 and Yamaha YDP143 compared:

 Casio PX860 Korg SV1 Yamaha YDP143 Height 83.7 cm/33 inches 15.7 cm/6.1 inches 81.5 cm/32.1 inches Width 136.7 cm/53.8 inches 135.6 cm/53.3 inches 135.7 cm/53.4 inches Depth 29.9 cm/11.8 inches 34.7 cm/13.7 inches 42.2 cm/16.6 inches Weight 35.5 kg/78.3 lbs 20.55 kg/45.3 lbs 38.0 kg/83 lbs USB port(s) Yes Yes Yes Headphone jack Yes Yes Yes Number of keys 88 88 88 Integrated speaker(s) Yes No Yes Metronome Yes No Yes Recording feature Yes No Yes Number of sounds 18 36 10 Velocity sensitivity Yes Yes Yes Polyphony 256 voices 80 voices 192 voices Weighted keys Yes Yes Yes Number of headphone jacks 1 1 2

3rd price range: from 1700 \$

The Roland RD800

With the Roland RD800 we’re getting into the highest price range. The pianos in this price range are really meant for the more advanced and for the professional piano players. The sounds that come with this kind of keyboards are of professional quality, and the number of sounds is by far superior with normally at least a few hundred different sounds.

The RD800 has more than 1100 preset sounds: 34 different piano sounds (from 5 piano-types), 56 different electric piano sounds (from 5 electric piano-types), organ sounds, a wide range of vintage keyboard sounds, many synth sounds and more.

A big amount of controls lets you shape each individual sound. All custom settings can be stored for instant recall during performances.

Included in the RD800 is a comprehensive effect section with equalizer, reverb, delay, tremolo and amp simulator, a rotary effect for the organ sounds and more.

The Roland RD800 has 88 weighted keys and a polyphony of 128 voices.

Computer connections can be made with either the USB port or with MIDI IN/OUT connectors.

The RD800 doesn’t have built-in speakers, so you will need external (powered) speakers, or use headphones.

Like the Korg SV1, it has standard jack outputs and also XLR balanced outputs for better signal transmission.

The Roland RD800 has a weight of 21.7 kg (47.7 lb).

Check the price of the Roland RD800 on amazon.com via the button below:

The Nord Electro 5

The Nord Electro 5 is a truly amazing instrument with the most beautiful piano and organ sounds. It includes 3 instrument sections (piano, organ and sample synth) and an effect section (tremolo, wah, phaser, flanger, chorus, reverb, delay, equalizer, amp simulations and more).

With the MIDI IN/OUT or the USB connections you can connect the Nord Stage 3 to a computer (for example to use it with Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) software).

The Nord Electro 5 comes in 3 model versions:

– the Nord Electro 5 HP (73 keys weighted hammer action, 11.4 kg (25.1 lb))

– the Nord Electro 5 D 73 (73 keys semi-weighted, 9.2 kg (20.3 lb))

– the Nord Electro 5 D 61 (61 keys semi-weighted, 8.1 kg (17.9 lb))

The polyphony of the Electro 5 is 40 stereo or 60 mono voices.

The piano section

The piano library has a memory of 1 GB and offers a wide choice of preset sounds. It’s also possible to download more sounds from the manufacturer’s website.

The organ section

The organ section contains simulations of among others the Farfisa, the Vox and principle pipe organs and includes rotary speaker simulation.

The sample synth section

The sample synth section contains a broad selection of free samples, like the Mellotron.

The included Nord Sample Editor makes it possible to add any sound you want.

Via the buttons below, you can check the prices on amazon.com:

Nord Electro 5 HP:

Nord Electro 5 D 73:

Nord Electro 5 D 61:

The Nord stage 3

This is definitely one of the best digital stage pianos on the market. It includes 3 instrument sections (piano, organ and synths) and an effect section (reverb, delay, compressor…) with morphable parameters. The effect section enables you to customize the preset sounds.

With the MIDI IN/OUT or the USB connections you can connect the Nord Stage 3 to a computer (for example to use it with Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) software).

In comparison with its predecessor (the Nord Stage 2), the Stage 3 comes with:

– 2 GB of memory for the piano library (instead of 1 GB in the Nord Stage 2)

– seamless transitions when changing programs/sounds, convenient for live situations

–  120 voice polyphony (60 for the Nord Stage 2)

There are 3 model versions for the Nord Stage 3:

– the Nord Stage 3 88 (88 keys weighted hammer action, 19 kg (41.8 lb))

– the Nord Stage 3 HP76 (76 keys hammer action, 12,5 kg (27.5 lb))

– the Nord Stage 3 Compact (73 keys semi-weighted, 10 kg (22 lb))

The piano section

The piano library is huge (2 GB) and offers such a wide choice of preset sounds (like Steinway grand pianos, the Wurlitzer, the Fender Rhodes and more), that you would probably not often want to add or replace sounds of the library (it is possible to download more sounds from the manufacturer’s website).

The organ section

The Nord Stage 3 gives you the Hammond B3 tone wheel simulation, rotary speaker simulation and simulations of pipe organs, the Vox Continental and Farfisa Compact.

The Nord Stage 3 HA88 and HP76 have LED drawbars for the organ section, whilst the Nord Stage 3 Compact offers real physical drawbars to adjust your organ sounds.

The synth section

The Nord Stage 3’s new Oscillator section features 5 oscillator categories: Classic, Wave, Formant, Sample and brand new Super Wave (S-wave).

The sampler gives you the possibility to play pre-recorded sounds. You can also download samples from the manufacturer’s website (or other websites), and it is even possible to load your own samples when you install special software on your computer.

Via the buttons below, you can check the prices on amazon.com:

Nord Stage 3 88:

Nord Stage 3 HP76:

Nord Stage 3 Compact:

The Roland RD800, Nord Electro 5 and Nord Stage 3 compared:

 Roland RD800 Nord Electro 5 Nord Stage 3 Height 13.8 cm/5.4 inches 12.1 cm/4.8 inches* 11.8 cm/4.7 inches** Width 140 cm/55.1 inches 107.4 cm/42.3 inches* 128.7 cm/50.7 inches** Depth 36.7 cm/14.4 inches 34.4 cm/13.5 inches* 33.4 cm/13 inches** Weight 21.7 kg/47.7 lbs 11.4 kg/25.1 lbs* 19 kg/41.8 lbs** USB port(s) Yes Yes Yes Headphone jack Yes Yes Yes Number of keys 88 73* 88** Integrated speaker(s) No No No Number of sounds 1100+ Hundreds*** Hundreds*** Velocity sensitivity Yes Yes Yes Polyphony 128 voices 40/60 voices 120 voices Weighted keys Yes Yes Yes

*: the Nord Electro 5 HP

**: the Nord Stage 3 88

#### Powered speakers (studio monitors)

If you buy a digital piano without built-in speakers, you will need external speakers with amplification (unless you only want to play with headphones on). For home use you could use studio monitors, which are speakers with built-in amplification that are normally used in recording studios.

Note that these monitors will not give you enough volume for playing gigs, they are for home use.

I made a choice of two good and affordable studio monitors that are perfect for a digital piano:

The powered speakers I recommend below are monitors for a (home) recording studio, but can be very well used for your digital piano. Both monitors offer a good sound and don’t cost very much.

 PRESONUS ERIS E4.5   Affordable, solidly constructed monitors with good sound. The left speaker acts as power amp for both speakers.   2 x 25 W class AB amplification 70 Hz – 20 kHz frequency response 100 dB max peak SPL Inputs: Unbalanced Stereo mini jack 3.5 mm Unbalanced RCA Balanced ¼” TRS Dimensions: 7.09” (180mm) x 6.42” (163mm) x 9.49” (241mm) Weight: 13 lbs (5.9 kg)   Check out price and reviews on Amazon KRK RP5G3   A bit more expensive than the PreSonus, but with better sound quality. Each speaker has its own built-in power amp.   2 x 50 W class AB amplification 45 Hz – 35 kHz frequency response 106 dB max peak SPL Inputs: Unbalanced RCA Balanced ¼” TRS Balanced XLR Dimensions: 9.06″ (230mm) x 7.28″ (185mm) x 11.10″ (282mm) Weight : 14.1 lbs (6.4 kg)   Check out price and reviews on Amazon

### Synthesizers

Synthesizers are electronic musical instruments that generate electrical signals which are used to produce their own sounds. Back in the early days, the synthesizers were only analogic. The sounds were produced by combining the outputs of several analogic oscillators into the final sound.

In this way, new sounds were created that were totally different from the sounds produced by original musical instruments like a piano, an organ, or whatever other acoustic instrument.

Today, digital synthesizers emulate the old analog synthesizers with great precision. In addition, they often provide pre-recorded sounds (samples) like pianos, organs, strings and more.

Synthesizers are most often played on the piano keyboard that is integrated with the synthesizer itself, but it is also possible to connect them via MIDI or USB to an external controller like music sequencers, wind controllers, electronic drums, guitar synthesizers and much more.

It is even possible to have a digital synthesizer without a keyboard, in the form of a sound module. In this case you need of course an external controller like a MIDI keyboard or one of the other controllers mentioned above.

Synthesizers are certainly not the first choice when it comes to learning how to play the piano. This is more for people that like to experiment with different sounds, and use their own created sounds in a band or in a home studio for example.

### Workstations/Arrangers

A workstation is a synthesizer with a lot of on-board sounds, combined with a sequencer. You could see a workstation as a complete recording studio built in a synthesizer. With a workstation, it is possible with its built-in sequencer to create a whole band: you write the drums-, the bass-, the guitar- and the piano-part; the workstation will play all the instruments together and you hear your own creation played by a whole band.

It is even possible to record audio over it, so you can add voice, acoustic instruments, etcetera.

Workstations normally have an internal hard disk to record your productions and often also a CD burner to burn your work directly to a CD.

A workstation can be used for composing, recording and producing music.

Note that you can do exactly the same thing by connecting a normal synthesizer, digital piano or MIDI keyboard to a computer with a MIDI or USB connection. With this setup, together with sequencing software (the so-called DAW software, or Digital Audio Workstation software) installed on the computer, you have the same functionality as with a workstation.

An arranger is a sort of workstation that creates a whole band for you. You enter your chord progression and a style (rock, jazz …); the arranger then plays a whole band in the selected style with your chord progression and you can play over it. This is ideal for one-man bands that need the sound of an entire band.

### MIDI keyboards

MIDI keyboards don’t produce any sound at all. They’re used to trigger sound producing devices such as synthesizers, digital pianos, workstations, computers with software synthesizers and/or sequencing software (DAW software) and sound modules that don’t have a keyboard integrated.

The data transfer from the MIDI keyboard to the sound producing device is established by a MIDI or USB connection.

When you have a good sound module, or if you want to use a software synthesizer, a MIDI keyboard is a very good option.

Better MIDI keyboards also have weighted keys (semi-weighted, hammer action or graded hammer action).

Note that most digital pianos, synthesizers and workstations can also act as a MIDI keyboard. In that case, you wouldn’t use the built-in sounds of your keyboard, but an external source like a sound module, a software synthesizer or another keyboard.

## Accessories

bench

Choose a piano bench of good quality and adjustable in height.

sustain pedal (also: damper pedal)

When the sustain pedal is pressed, every note played on the piano will continue to sound till the note naturally fades out (by the way: some sounds, like organ sounds don’t fade out naturally) or till the sustain pedal is released.

metronome

A metronome produces a beat at regular time intervals. The beat is set in beats per minute (bpm).

A metronome is needed to practice: it keeps your rhythm steady; it avoids speeding up or slowing down the music.

Nowadays, metronomes are small digital devices that produce electronic beeps or clicks. They are not very expensive, but to be honest, you can even have them for free: just download a free metronome on your smart phone and you’re ready to go!

With headphones, you can even play the piano in the middle of the night without disturbing others.

music stand

You will need a stand to put your music sheets on. Some keyboards have them integrated. When not, don’t worry, they’re really not that expensive.

keyboard stand

You can put your keyboard on a table of course, but it’s not very probable that the table will have exactly the perfect height. It’s better to have a keyboard stand. Keyboard stands come in all colors and sizes and are usually not very expensive.

## Glossary

Aftertouch

Most electronic keyboards respond to the pressure applied after hitting the key. This is called aftertouch. Aftertouch is often used to control vibrato, volume or other parameters.

MIDI

MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) is a protocol for the communication of sound information between a sending device (for example a MIDI keyboard) and a device that receives the information and produces sound (for example a sound module). The information doesn’t contain the actual sound, but information of which note is played, how long it is played, which instrument is played, and so on.

Multitimbrality

Multitimbrality is the ability of a keyboard or sound module to play different instruments simultaneously, which enables you to play a whole band. When for example a keyboard or sound module is 16 part multitimbral, this means that it can handle 16 different instruments simultaneously (over 16 different MIDI channels).

Polyphony

Polyphony refers to the maximum number of notes that a keyboard or sound module can produce at one time. When using the 10 fingers on your both hands, you would expect that 10-note polyphony would be sufficient. But when you use the sustain pedal, you quickly need more than 10 notes at the same time. When playing several instruments together with a sequencer, notes can also quickly add up. Modern keyboards can have a polyphony of 128, 192 or even 256 notes.

Sequencer

A sequencer is a programmable device that can play sequences of notes, chords and rhythms that can be transmitted via MIDI signals to a keyboard or sound module. A sequencer can be a hardware device, but also a software program.

Velocity sensitivity

A keyboard with velocity sensitive keys responds to the speed of the key-press. A higher speed results in a louder note. This imitates the acoustic piano where the speed of the key-press determines how fast the hammer hits the strings which changes the volume of the sound. Apart from very cheap toy pianos, practically all the modern electronic keyboards are velocity sensitive.

Did you find the information you were looking for? Do you have a better idea of what the best piano for you is? Please let us know and leave a comment below.

## Learn to play piano in 10 steps

You always wanted to learn to play piano? This is your chance! In this 10 step-tutorial you will learn the basics of piano playing and reading music and you will play your first song.

## Step 1: Obtain a piano

If you want to learn to play piano, you need, well…a piano!

When this seems obvious, it’s perhaps less obvious what kind of piano to choose (if you don’t already have one).

The first question that may arise is: what is better, an acoustic piano or an electronic keyboard?

In this context, it’s important to realize that a lot of electronic keyboards (especially the cheaper ones) don’t have a real ‘piano feeling’.

What I mean is the following: in a piano, a hammer strikes one, two or three strings. The hammer is connected by a lever system to the key. This causes a resistance when playing the key, and this is the ‘piano feeling’.

In better keyboards, this ‘piano feeling’ is simulated. There are several techniques to simulate this:

• Semi-weighted keyboards (this is the most simple and cheapest solution)
• Hammer action keys
• Graded hammer action keys (this is the best, but most expensive solution)

To learn the piano, it’s not a good idea to buy an electronic keyboard that is not weighted, as it misses this feeling of a real piano.

So, to conclude: to learn to play the piano, acquire either an acoustic piano, or an electronic keyboard that is at least semi-weighted, but better is a keyboard with hammer action.

In my article “How to choose the best piano keyboard 2017 – Top 9 digital pianos” you can find much more information and tips for when you are looking for a suitable piano.

Apart from a piano, you will need two more things:

• A bench, adjustable in height
• A metronome

## Step 2: The correct posture

When sitting in front of the piano, your arms should be horizontal (your elbow should be at the same height as the keyboard, or eventually a little bit higher). To achieve this, adjust the height of the bench. Your back should be straight. Place your knees slightly under the keyboard and keep your feet flat on the ground near or on the pedals.

## Step 3: The correct hand position

Never hold your hand and fingers flat. Your hands and fingers should be curved as if you would hold a tennis ball.

Hold your hands as in the next figure:

So, never hold your hands as follows:

## Step 4: Learn the numbers of your fingers

It is important to use the right finger positions in order to be able to link the consecutive notes in a melody nicely together. Both hands use the same finger numbering: the thumb is finger number 1, the index finger is number 2, the middle finger is number 3, the ring finger number 4 and the little finger is finger number 5.

From now on, I will use only the finger numbers and not any more the finger names. So, I will not anymore say: “Play this key with the index finger”, but: “Play this key with finger number 2”.

## Step 5: Learn how to use the metronome

A good habit is to use the metronome when practicing the piano. With a metronome, you keep a steady rhythm without speeding up or slowing down the notes of the exercise.

Start to put the metronome on a (very) slow tempo, for example 60 beats per minute. If this is still too quick, simply slow it down even more, till you master the exercise at that speed. Once mastered, speed it up: set the metronome on a higher tempo and redo the exercise. You master it at the higher tempo? Speed it up even more, till you master it at the wanted speed.

A bad habit is to want to play a melody, a song, or an exercise directly at a high speed, because you will make mistakes. A lot of people start at a high speed and think that if they will play it again and again (at this high speed), they will master it at a certain moment. Don’t make this mistake: start slowly, and when you’re able to play it well, then speed things up.

Another thing: in most songs, you can count 1-2-3-4   1-2-3-4   1-2-3-4 and so on. When doing your exercise, melody or song, first put the metronome on and count with the metronome 1-2-3-4 and then start to play on the next 1.

## Step 6: Get to know the piano keys

When you look at a piano keyboard, you see black and white keys. When you look a bit closer, you can see that there is a pattern in the piano keys. You can see that the best by looking at the black keys: you will see groups of two black keys and groups of three black keys.

Now look at a group of 2 black keys (it doesn’t matter which one). The white key at the left side of a group of 2 black keys is called the C. When you play a note on a C key, you hear the note C. You can see that there’s not only one C on the keyboard: every time you have a group of 2 black keys, the white key just at the left side is a C.

Let me go on by naming the other keys.

From the C key, we can go on with the white key just at the right side of the C. Take the next letter in the alphabet, which is the D. Keep going on in alphabetical order till you reach the letter G. We have now named the following white keys:

For the last 2 white keys, at the left side of the C, we go down alphabetically. This gives us the B and the A:

Let’s have a look again at the C’s. Of all the C’s, there’s one C that we call the middle C. The middle C is typically the note that divides the piano keyboard in two parts: a lower part at the left side of the middle C and an upper part at the right side of the middle C.

Usually, you play the upper part with the right hand and the lower part with the left hand, although you can play notes lower than middle C with the right hand and notes higher than middle C with the left hand. For more information on the middle C, see the lesson “The middle C on a piano keyboard”.

So we now know the names of all the white keys. What about the black keys? Well, we don’t need them for now. But if you are interested: in my lesson “The note names and how to find the notes on a piano keyboard”, you can find also the black key names and more information about note names.
For two great exercises to quickly learn the keys of the piano, go to the following links:
Which note is played on the piano?
Place the note on the right key of the piano

## Step 7: Learn the notes on the staff

Musical notes are written on a set of 5 horizontal lines which we call the staff:

There is one staff for the right hand and one for the left hand. To indicate which one we’re dealing with, we put a symbol in the beginning of the staff: a treble clef for the right hand and a bass clef for the left hand.

For now, we will only look at the treble clef. For more information, look at my lessons about the treble clef and about the bass clef.

As mentioned before, the treble clef is for the right hand and is therefore meant for the higher notes. The higher notes are the notes from middle C and higher, although it is possible to use the treble clef also for notes lower than middle C.

In the staff below, you can see how to display notes on a staff with a treble clef:

Try to memorize those notes as it will help you to quickly read notes. A handy trick to memorize the treble clef notes is the following: the notes that go in between the lines make the word FACE:

I have a great (interactive) exercise for you to quickly learn the notes of the treble clef:

## Step 8: Learn about note lengths and measures

Notes can be played short or long. Note lengths are measured in number of beats. A note can have a length of 1 beat, 2 beats, 3 beats, 4 beats, or also fractions of a beat.

A note that has a length of exactly one beat is written as follows:

We call a note with a length of 1 beat a quarter note.

A note with a length of 2 beats is a half note and you write it like this:

A note with a length of 4 beats is a whole note and you write it as follows:

OK, let me show you first a simple melody with quarter notes, half notes and whole notes:

In the next short video, you will see how to play this on the piano. For the finger positions, refer to the image above. You will hear the click of the metronome count to 4 before the melody starts.

To train yourself in note lengths, you could do the exercise “Whole note, half note, quarter note”.

Remember that I told you before that in most songs you can count 1-2-3-4  1-2-3-4  1-2-3-4 and so on? We call every ‘1-2-3-4’ a measure (also called a bar). In the staff above, you have two measures of each 4 beats. In the staff, we divide measures by vertical lines. So the notes in the staff above can then be written as:

The red arrows show each beat. You see there are 4 beats per measure. The half note, the first C, takes 2 beats. The 2 quarter notes, the E and the G, each 1 beat. And the whole note, the last C, takes 4 beats, the whole measure. And now you also understand why we call a whole note a whole note: since it fills exactly one whole measure. A half note fills half of a measure and a quarter note a quarter measure. You can have up to 4 quarter notes in one measure.

We call a song that has 4 quarter notes in a measure a song in 4 quarter time. As this is most common, we also call this common time. An example of music that is not in common time is a waltz. A waltz has 3 counts per measure.

In the beginning of the staff, just after the (treble) clef, we write the next symbol for a song in 4 quarter time:

And since it is so common, we also often use the next symbol:

## Step 9: Get the feeling of playing notes on the piano

OK, now you know how to locate the keys on the piano keyboard and how to read them in the staff, let’s start to play.

I will show you how to play in the next video. I you prefer to read the exercise then just skip the video and keep on reading.

It’s important to link the consecutive notes together so that you don’t hear a ‘gap’ between the notes. We will start on the middle C.

So, first play the note C with finger 1 (your thumb). Let it sound for about a second and then play the D with finger 2. Try to link the notes together so that you don’t hear a silence between both notes. On the other hand, you may not overlap the notes, so you may not hear two notes at the same time. This is not very difficult, but when you do it for the first time, you’ll have to practice that a few times.

When you’re able to link the notes nicely together, play the note sequence in the staff of the next figure, so the notes: C  D  E  F  G. Place finger 1 (the thumb) on the C, finger 2 on D, finger 3 on E, finger 4 on F and finger 5 on G.

You can first try to play 1 or 2 times without the metronome. After that, put the metronome on a slow tempo (for example 60 beats per minute). Let the metronome count 4 beats, and then start to play the sequence. Every time you hear the click of the metronome, you move to the next note. When you finally play the last note (the G), let it sound during 4 beats (4 clicks of the metronome). When you master it well at 60 beats per minute (bpm), speed it up to, let’s say 70 bpm. Then 80 bpm, and so on.

Another exercise would be to play the sequence as in the next figure, so the notes:  C  E  G  E  C . For the C, use finger 1. For the E finger 3 and for the G finger 5 (as in the previous exercise). Again, do this with the metronome. Start slowly and then speed it up.

A last exercise: play the sequence:  C  E  D  F  E  G  F  D  C (see the next figure). Use again the same finger positions, so: 1 on C, 2 on D, 3 on E, 4 on F and 5 on G. As always, start slowly (60 bpm) and when you master it, speed it up.

## Step 10: Play that song!

Let’s finally play our first real song! We will do “Twinkle twinkle little star”, since that song is not too difficult and everyone knows it.

In the video below, I explain clearly how to play Twinkle twinkle. Notice that we will not have exactly the same finger positions as before. This is because we go from a G to an A. When you have your little finger (finger 5) on the G, as we did before, you’ll have to play also the A with the same finger. In this way, you cannot link the notes nicely together. So, in the first line of the song, you have to play the G with finger 4 instead of with finger 5.

And that’s it; you played your first song on the piano! And I think you deserve a big applause for this!

Are you interested in more? You can follow the free theory lessons and the exercises on this site.

Are you interested in piano lessons? I have an online piano course with 14 hours of video, lots of play along files and with PDF files with scales and chords. You can have more information on the “Music courses”-page of this website.

## Sharps and flats – Key signature

In the treble clef and bass clef lessons, you learned how to read and write the ‘white key notes’, the ones without sharps or flats; how to write sharps and flats in sheet music?

## Sharps and flats

How to write a sharp note in a staff? It’s really simple: just put the sharp sign (#) before the note.

For example, this is an F#:

And this is a D#:

For a flat note, just write the flat sign (b) before the note:

This is a Gb:

And this is an Eb:

Important is that this sharp or flat sign is only valid from the moment the sign is displayed till the end of the measure you’re in. In the next example, I’ll explain this in more detail (btw, the staff is in treble clef):

The notes in the first measure are: F#   G   A   F#. So, the last note in the first measure is an F#, not an F. The notes in the second measure are: F   G   A   F. The sharp sign from the first measure is not anymore valid in the second measure.

But what if I wanted to have F#   G   A   F in the first measure? In that case, we have the natural sign, that cancels the sharp sign before the first note:

The same rule applies to flat notes. The flat sign is only valid within the measure where it is used. If we want to cancel the flat sign for a certain note in the same measure, you can apply the same natural sign as with the sharp notes.

## Key signature

Have a look at the next melody, which is in the key of F major:

You see that the melody has one flat note, the Bb. That’s normal, since F major has a flat note in its scale, the Bb!

You would expect this Bb to occur even more often in the melody. And that’s exactly what happens, have a look at the next line in this song:

When I would display also the rest of the song, you would see even more B flats appear.

Wouldn’t it be much easier to say at the beginning of the song that every B should be seen as a Bb? Well, that’s exactly what is normally done. We put the flat sign in the beginning, between the clef and the time signature. Now, the same song can be displayed as follows:

Note that not only B’s that are on the 3rd line of the staff become Bb’s. All the B’s become Bb’s, so also this one.

Sharps and flats that are displayed between the clef and the time signature, are called the key signature.

The key signature corresponds with the major or minor key the song is in. When a song is in G major, which, as you know, has only one sharp (the F#), the key signature looks as:

Now, the same key signature also applies to E minor, since E minor is the relative minor of G major. So, every key signature can be used for a major key and its relative minor key.

## Other key signatures

We can display the key signatures for all major and minor keys in the circle of fifths. This gives us a nice and quick overview of all the sharps and flats in the major and minor keys:

Now that you know about sharps, flats and key signatures, check your knowledge with the quiz that is accesible via the link below:

Final music reading exercise – Level I

Please let us know if this lesson helped you in learning about sharps, flats and key signatures by leaving a comment below.

## Measures (bars) – How many beats in a bar

Musical notes on a staff are grouped in measures, or also called bars (I will use both terms in this lesson). How many beats in a bar there are? Well, that depends on the time signature, as we will see soon.

## How many beats in a bar (or measure)?

You can often hear musicians that play together count 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 before the song starts. What they are counting, are actually the beats in a measure. Most songs have 4 beats in a bar. You can count 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – … during the whole song (when the time signature doesn’t change during the song).

Another common type of songs has 3 beats in a measure. A waltz is an example of a piece with 3 beats per measure.

Those two types (4 beats in a bar and 3 beats in a bar) are most common, but other numbers of beats in a bar are also possible.

## Time signature – 4 quarter time

Let’s again have a look at songs that have 4 beats in a measure. You remember probably that a quarter note has a duration of exactly one beat. So that means that instead of saying 4 beats per measure, you could also say: 4 quarter notes per measure. A piece of music that has 4 quarter notes per measure is called a piece in 4 quarter time. Or, you can also say: the time signature is 4 quarter.

In sheet music, in the beginning of a piece, we write this as follows (after the treble or bass clef):

Since 4 quarter is the most common time signature, it’s also very often written as follows:

Now, 4 quarter notes per bar doesn’t mean that you can only have quarter notes. It means that all the note durations of the notes in one bar added together make 4 beats. For example, 1 bar can consist of one whole note, or 2 half notes, or a half note with 2 quarter notes. One bar can have 8 eighth notes, or 4 eighth notes and 2 quarter notes, etcetera, as long as the total duration is that of 4 beats.

Let me give an example of 4 quarter time music. In the next staff, 2 bars of a little musical line are written out. Note that the bars are separated by vertical lines.

For a good understanding of the music, it’s important to know on which beat the notes in a song are. To know this, you can count 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 etcetera during the whole song. In the next sound sample, you will hear the musical line written in the staff above. The metronome will count to 4 before the song starts. Count 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 with the metronome and pay attention which notes in the staff are exactly on beat 1, beat 2, etcetera.

When you do it well, you should come up with the following:

## Time signature – 3 quarter time

We already know how many beats in a bar the 3 quarter time signature has: that’s 3 beats, or 3 quarter notes. But any other combination of note lengths can be made that add up to 3 quarter notes, of course. So, 1 quarter note plus 4 eighth notes, or 2 quarter notes and 2 eighth notes, etcetera.

The symbol for the 3 quarter time signature that has to be placed in the beginning of the staff is:

Here’s the first line of “Amazing grace”, which is in 3 quarter time:

You might notice a strange thing: the first measure only has 1 quarter note, when it should be 3! This happens quite often in the beginning of a song: the song actually starts on beat 3 instead of on beat 1. We call this first measure with only one quarter note a pickup, or more oficially, an anacrusis.

Below, you can listen to a sound sample of the first line of Amazing grace. The metronome begins by counting to 3 (because it’s 3 quarter time), then it starts again to 3. The pickup note (the G) is then played on beat 3. So, this means that you will hear the metronome count 5 times before the first note plays.

## Other time signatures

There are many other time signatures, sometimes very exotic ones, like for example 11 eighth. I will not talk about those very complicated time signatures, but let me introduce you 2 more or less common ones.

### 6 eighth time

In a 6 eighth time signature, you can have 6 eighth notes per bar.

How many beats in a bar is that? Well, that’s 6 beats, because every beat in a 6 eighth time signature goes with an eighth note. Now, this might be confusing for you, because in my lesson about note durations I told that a quarter note was exactly one beat… Well, this is true for all the ‘quarter time signatures’, like 3 quarter and 4 quarter. In ‘eighth time signatures’ (like 3 eighth or 6 eighth), every eighth note is exactly one beat.

In fact, the ‘8’ in 6 eighth means that every beat corresponds to an eighth note. The ‘6’ in a 6 eighth time means that you have 6 of those eighth notes in a measure.

An example of a 6 eighth time is “Norwegian wood” from the Beatles. Here’s the first line:

Now, compare this line with the sound sample of the first line of Norwegian wood:

You might ask: “What’s the difference between 3 quarter and 6 eighth? You could very well have 6 eighth notes in a 3 quarter time piece!

The difference is: which beats are accentuated?

When you have 6 eighth notes in a 3 quarter time piece, you actually have 3 times 2 eighth notes.  You could count like: ‘1 and 2  and 3 and’  for the 6 notes. The accents are on beat 1, 2 and 3.

When you have 6 eighth notes in a 6 eighth time piece, beats 1 and 4 are accentuated, so there are 2 groups of 3 eighth notes in a bar. You can then count as follows: ‘1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6′.

### 5 quarter time

One of the most famous pieces in 5 quarter time is “Take five” by Dave Brubeck. How many beats in a bar has a piece in 5 quarter time? Well, 5 of course: 5 quarter notes.

Below, you can listen to “Take five” (see if you can count with the song: 1-2-3-4-5   1-2-3-4-5 etc):

I hope this lesson helped you to learn about bars and beats. Please tell us what you think of it in the comments below.

2

## All bass clef notes

When you’ve seen my lesson about treble clef notes, you know how to find all the notes on the staff with a  treble clef, especially if you remember the trick how to memorize them (the FACE-notes). To easily find all bass clef notes, we also have a little trick. Keep reading to find out how to find all bass clef notes.

## How to find all bass clef notes?

The bass clef is mainly for notes from middle C and lower. So this is for the left hand on the piano. This is, however, not a rule. You can display notes on a bass clef that are higher than middle C. And sometimes, but not often, notes on the bass clef are played with the right hand.

To indicate that the staff we’re reading is in bass clef, we use the next bass clef symbol at the beginning of the staff:

On the next staff, you can see all bass clef notes on and in between the 5 lines of the staff:

The highest note, the A on the upper line of the staff, is the A just under the middle C, so a minor 3rd under the middle C.

As I promised you, there’s also a trick to easily remember all bass clef notes. When I display only the notes in between the lines of the staff, we get:

At first sight, those notes A, C, E and G don’t make up a nice word as was the case with the FACE-notes in the treble key. But, the letters of those bass notes form the first letters of the sentence “ALL COWS EAT GRASS”.

With this trick, it’s easy to remember the bass notes in between the lines of the staff. The other notes are then easy to find from those 4 notes.

## Ledger lines

As with the treble clef, we can add ledger lines to the staff. When you don’t remember how they work, have a look at the treble clef lesson.

Can you see which note is displayed here?

It’s a (very low) B!

And this one?

Well, this is an important one to remember: it’s the middle C!

The middle C is on the first ledger line above the bass clef staff. Remember that the middle C is also on the first ledger line under the treble clef staff.

## Treble and bass clef together

In sheet music for piano, you find the treble clef (generally for the right hand) and the bass clef (generally for the left hand) displayed together as in the figure above.

Now that you learned how to read notes on the bass clef, be sure to practice this regularly. The exercise that is accesible via the link below is ideal for this purpose.

Place the note on the bass clef on the piano keyboard (only white keys)

Please tell us what you think of this lesson (for example what did you think of the trick to remember the bass clef notes?) by leaving a comment below.

## Rests: whole rest, half rest, quarter rest and more

Music generally doesn’t only consist of a long stream of only notes. Music also needs some rests. How do we write rests?

## Whole rest, half rest, quarter rest

As with notes, rests have durations, you can have short rests and longer rests.

The equivalents of the whole note, half note and quarter note are the whole rest, the half rest and the quarter rest.

### Whole rest

The whole rest has, like the whole tone, a duration of 4 beats.

In the staff, you can write a whole rest as follows:

### Half rest

The half rest has, like the half tone, a duration of 2 beats.

You can write the half rest as follows:

### Quarter rest

And, as you might have guessed already, the quarter rest has a duration of 1 beat.

Here, you can see the quarter rest in a staff:

### Eighth rest, sixteenth rest and more

The eighth rest, with a duration of a half beat, can be written as follows:

And, you might not be surprised when I tell you that the sixteenth rest, with duration of a quarter beat, can be written as the eighth rest with an extra flag (see below). Like was the case with the sixteenth note.

By adding more flags, we can make thirty-second rests and sixty-fourth rests (see below). Those very short rests are not often used.

## Examples

To give you an idea of rests in music, listen to the examples below and compare them with their corresponding staffs. All the sound samples start with a metronome that counts 4 beats before the rhythm on the staff begins.

The first example uses whole rests and notes and half rests and notes:

The second example has also half and quarter rests and notes:

And now also with eighth rests and notes:

At this point, it’s a good time to combine different note and rest durations with different notes on the treble clef. Let’s again start with a simple example and again gradually increase the level of difficulty.

Example 1:

Example 2:

Example 3:

Perhaps that this last example was a bit difficult to follow. In the video below, I explain exactly how you can deal with difficult rhythms that you can come across when reading sheet music.

This 7 minute video is an extract from a video in my online piano course “How to play the piano or keyboard from scratch“. It explains how to play notes that are not exactly on the beat, but in between two beats. This is illustrated with the verse and chorus of the song ‘Let it be’ from the Beatles.

In the video, you will see measures (or bars), a 4 quarter time signature, and a pickup in the beginning of the chorus and the verse. You don’t need to know what this all is to be able to follow the video.

To fully master rests and notes, it’s important to practice regularly. Be sure to do the exercise in the link below.

Rests and notes

## Note lengths

Note lengths are important in music: a note can be played (very) short, (very) long and everything in between.

You can measure note lengths in number of beats; but this can also be in fractions of a beat.

But, what is exactly a beat?

## What is a beat?

A beat could be defined as the basic rhythmic unit in music.

When you clap your hands or tap your toes when you listen to a piece of music, you do that normally on every beat.

## Notation of note lengths in the staff

### Whole note, half note and quarter note

Some basic note lengths (or note values) are the whole note, the half note and the quarter note. You can see them displayed in the staff below.

The whole note has a duration of 4 beats. In 4/4 time, this corresponds to a whole measure, from where ‘whole note’ has its name. The duration of a half tone is half of that of a whole tone, so 2 beats. And, logically, a quarter note has a duration of 1 beat.

Listen to a sound sample of the whole note, half note and 2 quarter notes as in the staff above. The metronome clicks every beat. You will hear the metronome count 4 beats before it starts.

Remark: whole note and half note have nothing to do with whole tone and half tone. The first 2 are durations, the last 2 are intervals.

The stem of a note (the little vertical bar) can be pointed upwards (as in our previous examples), but also downwards. Generally spoken, the stem is upwards for notes in the lower half of the staff, and downwards in the upper half. See the next figure for an example.

### Eighths notes and sixteenths notes

An eighth note has a duration half of that of the quarter note, which means a half beat. You can thus have two eighth notes in one beat. The note symbol for an eighth note is:

A sixteenths note is again half as long as an eighth note. You can have 4 sixteenths notes in one beat.

The note symbol for a sixteenth note is:

When 2 or more eighths or sixteenths notes are played after each other, you can make beamed notes as follows:

Combinations are also possible:

Look at the next combination of quarter notes, eighth notes and sixteenths notes and listen to the corresponding sound sample. The metronome starts with 4 beats before it begins.

### Other note lengths

By adding extra flags to the stem (little vertical bar on the note), we can make thirty-second notes (8 in a beat), sixty-fourth notes (16 in a beat), etcetera.

We can augment the note length by 50% by adding a dot after the note, for example:

• 1 + ½ = 1½ beats:
• 2 + 1 = 3 beats:
• ½ + ¼ = ¾ beats:

Remark: a ¾ beat note followed by a sixteenth note (¼ beat) can be notated as beamed notes, as follows:

Example: look at the next combination of notes and listen to the corresponding sound sample. As always, the metronome starts with 4 beats before it begins.

What to do if we want a note with a duration of –let’s say- 2½ beats? We can do this by linking a half note (2 beats) and an eighth note (½ beat) together:

Make sure to master your knowledge of note lengths by doing the exercises that are available via the 2 links below:

Whole note, half note, quarter note. Choose the right staff with the audio

Half note, quarter note, eighth note. Choose the right staff with the audio

Please let us know what you think of this lesson by leaving a comment below.

## The notes on the treble clef

Musical notes are written on a staff. A staff consists of 5 horizontal lines where the notes can be placed. The notes on the treble clef can be on or in between the 5 horizontal lines.

## The treble clef

The treble clef is mainly for notes from middle C and higher. So this is for the right hand on the piano. This is, however, not a rule. You can display notes on a treble clef that are lower than middle C. And sometimes, but not often, notes on the treble clef are played with the left hand.

To indicate that the staff we’re reading is in treble clef, we use the next treble clef symbol at the beginning of the staff:

As I said, the notes can be displayed on or in between the lines of the staff. The note on the lowest line is an E. This is the E which is a major 3rd higher than the middle C.

The next note, F, is displayed between the lowest 2 lines of the staff.

The G is on the 2nd line.

In this way we can go on, which gives us all the notes that can be placed on or in between the lines of the staff.

An easy way to remember the notes on the treble clef is by looking at the notes that go in between the lines: they make the word ‘FACE’.

From the ‘FACE’-notes, it’s very easy to deduce all the other notes.

## Ledger lines

As I mentioned before: the treble clef is for notes from middle C and higher. And it was even possible to display notes lower than middle C. How is this possible when the note on the lowest line is an E? Let’s first put a D on the staff. That’s still easy: just put it under the lowest line.

But how can we put the middle C? The middle C should be again on a line. But we don’t have any lines anymore. Well, you can do that with ledger lines.

A ledger line is a little horizontal line just under or above the staff that you place there where you want your note. The middle C is then displayed as follows:

You can even make the B:

For the A, we need a 2nd ledger line:

You can go on putting extra ledger lines for even lower notes. Now, the next question may arise: till how many ledger lines can you go? Well, officially, you can have as many ledger lines as you want. But, ask yourself: is it still readable? I would say that it’s still possible to read 3 or 4 ledger lines without a too big effort. But sometimes, you see even more ledger lines…

It’s also possible to put ledger lines above the staff to display higher notes.  Can you see which note is displayed in the next figure?

Well, I hope you found it on your own…

If not: it’s an E!

## This is not all

As you might have noticed, this is not all:

And now it’s time to do some exercises. Click on the link below to test your knowledge of the notes on the treble clef.

Place the note on the treble clef on the piano keyboard (only white keys)

Please tell us what you think of this lesson (and the trick to remember the treble clef notes) by leaving a comment below.

## Where is middle C on the piano or keyboard?

From all the C’s on the piano, there’s only one that is the middle C. The middle C is, as you guessed already, a C that doesn’t sound (very) low nor (very) high. It sounds, well, in the middle… But where is middle C on a piano or keyboard? That depends on the piano or keyboard, as we will see later.

In the next sound sample, you can hear a middle C so you can compare it to the middle C on your piano or keyboard.

## Where is the middle C?

The location of the middle C on a piano or keyboard depends on the number of keys that your instrument has. An acoustic piano normally has 88 keys. An electronic keyboard however has not necessarily always 88 keys. There are keyboards with 76, 73, 61 or 54 keys, and even other numbers of keys exist. As a general rule: the middle C is the C that is nearest to the exact middle of the keyboard.

Let me illustrate this with some keyboard-examples.

## The middle C on an 88 key piano (most acoustic pianos)

To find the middle C on an 88 key piano or keyboard, look for the exact middle of the keyboard. Since the keyboard has 88 keys, this is between key 44 and 45 (red arrow in figure). The middle C (highlighted in blue) is the C nearest to the exact middle of the piano.

On an 88 key piano or keyboard, the middle C is the 4th C from the left of the keyboard.

## The middle C on a 76 key piano

The exact middle of a 76 key piano is showed in the next figure. In the same figure, the middle C –which is the C nearest to the middle of the keyboard- is also indicated.

## The middle C on other keyboards

As mentioned above, the general rule states: the middle C is the C that is nearest to the exact middle of the keyboard. And, to be honest, it’s normally not even necessary to count the number of keys, divide by 2, look for the nearest C, etcetera: with a little bit of feeling, you can see at a glance which C is the middle C.

Please tell us what you think of this lesson by leaving a comment below.